WebA binary option is a financial exotic option in which the payoff is either some fixed monetary amount or nothing at all. The two main types of binary options are the cash-or-nothing binary option and the asset-or-nothing binary option. The former pays some fixed amount of cash if the option expires in-the-money while the latter pays the value of the underlying WebTrading spot currencies involves substantial risk and there is always the potential for loss. Your trading results may vary. Because the risk factor is high in the foreign exchange market trading, only genuine "risk" funds should be used in such trading. If you do not have the extra capital that you can afford to lose, you should not trade in Web12/10/ · Microsoft pleaded for its deal on the day of the Phase 2 decision last month, but now the gloves are well and truly off. Microsoft describes the CMA’s concerns as “misplaced” and says that Web26/10/ · Key Findings. California voters have now received their mail ballots, and the November 8 general election has entered its final stage. Amid rising prices and economic uncertainty—as well as deep partisan divisions over social and political issues—Californians are processing a great deal of information to help them choose state constitutional Web21/10/ · A footnote in Microsoft's submission to the UK's Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) has let slip the reason behind Call of Duty's absence from the Xbox Game Pass library: Sony and ... read more
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If you do not have the extra capital that you can afford to lose, you should not trade in the foreign exchange market. Profit sharing accounts are subject to a monthly performance fee per selected trading system. During the s Dr. Karl A. Clark of the Alberta Research Council patented a hot water oil separation process and entrepreneur Robert C.
Fitzsimmons  built the Bitumount oil separation plant, which between and produced up to barrels 50 m 3 per day of bitumen using Dr.
Clark's method. Most of the bitumen was used for waterproofing roofs, but other uses included fuels, lubrication oils, printers ink, medicines, rust- and acid-proof paints, fireproof roofing, street paving, patent leather, and fence post preservatives. Today the Bitumount plant is a Provincial Historic Site.
Bitumen was used in early photographic technology. In , or , it was used by French scientist Joseph Nicéphore Niépce to make the oldest surviving photograph from nature. The bitumen was thinly coated onto a pewter plate which was then exposed in a camera.
Exposure to light hardened the bitumen and made it insoluble, so that when it was subsequently rinsed with a solvent only the sufficiently light-struck areas remained.
Many hours of exposure in the camera were required, making bitumen impractical for ordinary photography, but from the s to the s it was in common use as a photoresist in the production of printing plates for various photomechanical printing processes. Bitumen was the nemesis of many artists during the 19th century. Although widely used for a time, it ultimately proved unstable for use in oil painting, especially when mixed with the most common diluents, such as linseed oil , varnish and turpentine.
Unless thoroughly diluted, bitumen never fully solidifies and will in time corrupt the other pigments with which it comes into contact. The use of bitumen as a glaze to set in shadow or mixed with other colors to render a darker tone resulted in the eventual deterioration of many paintings, for instance those of Delacroix.
Perhaps the most famous example of the destructiveness of bitumen is Théodore Géricault 's Raft of the Medusa — , where his use of bitumen caused the brilliant colors to degenerate into dark greens and blacks and the paint and canvas to buckle. The vast majority of refined asphalt is used in construction: primarily as a constituent of products used in paving and roofing applications.
According to the requirements of the end use, asphalt is produced to specification. This is achieved either by refining or blending. It is estimated that the current world use of asphalt is approximately million tonnes per year.
It is also used in other paved areas such as airport runways, car parks and footways. Typically, the production of asphalt concrete involves mixing fine and coarse aggregates such as sand , gravel and crushed rock with asphalt, which acts as the binding agent.
Other materials, such as recycled polymers e. Asphalt is applied in the construction and maintenance of many structures, systems, and components, such as the following:.
There are about 4, asphalt concrete mixing plants in the US, and a similar number in Europe. Due to its highly viscous nature, asphalt cement must be heated so it can be mixed with the aggregates at the asphalt mixing facility. The temperature required varies depending upon characteristics of the asphalt and the aggregates, but warm-mix asphalt technologies allow producers to reduce the temperature required. The weight of an asphalt pavement depends upon the aggregate type, the asphalt, and the air void content.
An average example in the United States is about pounds per square yard, per inch of pavement thickness. When maintenance is performed on asphalt pavements, such as milling to remove a worn or damaged surface, the removed material can be returned to a facility for processing into new pavement mixtures. The asphalt in the removed material can be reactivated and put back to use in new pavement mixes.
Asphalt concrete paving is widely used in airports around the world. Due to the sturdiness and ability to be repaired quickly, it is widely used for runways. This thermoplastic substance is widely used in the building industry for waterproofing flat roofs and tanking underground.
Mastic asphalt is heated to a temperature of °C °F and is spread in layers to form an impervious barrier about 20 millimeters 0. Asphalt emulsions are colloidal mixtures of bitumen and water. Due to the different surface tensions of the two liquids, stable emulsions cannot be created simply by mixing. Therefore, various emulsifiers and stabilizers are added. Emulsifiers are amphiphilic molecules that differ in the charge of their polar head group.
They reduce the surface tension of the emulsion and thus prevent bitumen particles from fusing. The emulsifier charge defines the type of emulsion: anionic negatively charged and cationic positively charged. Laser diffraction techniques can be used to determine the particle size distribution quickly and easily. During the storage of asphalt emulsions, bitumen particles sediment, agglomerate flocculation , or fuse coagulation , which leads to a certain instability of the asphalt emulsion.
How fast this process occurs depends on the formulation of the asphalt emulsion but also storage conditions such as temperature and humidity. When emulsified bitumen gets into contact with aggregates, emulsifiers lose their effectiveness, the emulsion breaks down, and an adhering bitumen film is formed referred to as 'breaking'. Bitumen particles almost instantly create a continuous bitumen film by coagulating and separating from water which evaporates.
Not each asphalt emulsion reacts as fast as the other when it gets into contact with aggregates. That enables a classification into Rapid-setting R , Slow-setting SS , and Medium-setting MS emulsions, but also an individual, application-specific optimization of the formulation and a wide field of application  1. For example, Slow-breaking emulsions ensure a longer processing time which is particularly advantageous for fine aggregates  1.
Adhesion problems are reported for anionic emulsions in contact with quartz-rich aggregates. They are substituted by cationic emulsions achieving better adhesion. The extensive range of asphalt emulsions is covered insufficiently by standardization. DIN EN for cationic asphalt emulsions has been existing since July Here, a classification of asphalt emulsions based on letters and numbers is described, considering charges, viscosities, and the type of bitumen. Two methods are commonly used, the "Colloid mill" method and the "High Internal Phase Ratio HIPR " method.
The resulting shear forces generate bitumen particles between 5 µm and 10 µm coated with emulsifiers. Here, a highly concentrated asphalt emulsion is produced first by moderate stirring and diluted afterward. In contrast to the "Colloid-Mill" method, the aqueous phase is introduced into hot bitumen, enabling very high bitumen concentrations.
T The "High Internal Phase Ratio HIPR " method is used for creating smaller bitumen particles, monomodal, narrow particle size distributions, and very high bitumen concentrations. Here, a highly concentrated bitumen emulsion is produced first by moderate stirring and diluted afterward. In contrast to the "Colloid-Mill" method, the aqueous phase is introduced into hot bitumen, enabling very high bitumen concentrations 1.
he "High Internal Phase Ratio HIPR " method is used for creating smaller bitumen particles, monomodal, narrow particle size distributions, and very high bitumen concentrations. Asphalt emulsions are used in a wide variety of applications. They are used in road construction and building protection and primarily include the application in cold recycling mixtures, adhesive coating, and surface treatment 1.
Due to the lower viscosity in comparison to hot bitumen, processing requires less energy and is associated with significantly less risk of fire and burns. Slurry seal is a mixture of asphalt emulsion and fine crushed aggregate that is spread on the surface of a road. Cold-mixed asphalt can also be made from asphalt emulsion to create pavements similar to hot-mixed asphalt, several inches in depth, and asphalt emulsions are also blended into recycled hot-mix asphalt to create low-cost pavements.
Bitumen emulsion based techniques are known to be useful for all classes of roads, their use may also be possible in the following applications: 1. Asphalts for heavily trafficked roads based on the use of polymer modified emulsions 2. Warm emulsion based mixtures, to improve both their maturation time and mechanical properties 3. Half-warm technology, in which aggregates are heated up to degrees, producing mixtures with similar properties to those of hot asphalts 4.
High performance surface dressing. Synthetic crude oil, also known as syncrude, is the output from a bitumen upgrader facility used in connection with oil sand production in Canada.
Bituminous sands are mined using enormous ton capacity power shovels and loaded into even larger ton capacity dump trucks for movement to an upgrading facility. The process used to extract the bitumen from the sand is a hot water process originally developed by Dr. Karl Clark of the University of Alberta during the s. After extraction from the sand, the bitumen is fed into a bitumen upgrader which converts it into a light crude oil equivalent.
This synthetic substance is fluid enough to be transferred through conventional oil pipelines and can be fed into conventional oil refineries without any further treatment. In Alberta, five bitumen upgraders produce synthetic crude oil and a variety of other products: The Suncor Energy upgrader near Fort McMurray, Alberta produces synthetic crude oil plus diesel fuel; the Syncrude Canada , Canadian Natural Resources , and Nexen upgraders near Fort McMurray produce synthetic crude oil; and the Shell Scotford Upgrader near Edmonton produces synthetic crude oil plus an intermediate feedstock for the nearby Shell Oil Refinery.
Canadian bitumen does not differ substantially from oils such as Venezuelan extra-heavy and Mexican heavy oil in chemical composition, and the real difficulty is moving the extremely viscous bitumen through oil pipelines to the refinery.
Many modern oil refineries are extremely sophisticated and can process non-upgraded bitumen directly into products such as gasoline, diesel fuel, and refined asphalt without any preprocessing.
This is particularly common in areas such as the US Gulf coast , where refineries were designed to process Venezuelan and Mexican oil, and in areas such as the US Midwest where refineries were rebuilt to process heavy oil as domestic light oil production declined.
Given the choice, such heavy oil refineries usually prefer to buy bitumen rather than synthetic oil because the cost is lower, and in some cases because they prefer to produce more diesel fuel and less gasoline. Because of the difficulty of moving crude bitumen through pipelines, non-upgraded bitumen is usually diluted with natural-gas condensate in a form called dilbit or with synthetic crude oil, called synbit. However, to meet international competition, much non-upgraded bitumen is now sold as a blend of multiple grades of bitumen, conventional crude oil, synthetic crude oil, and condensate in a standardized benchmark product such as Western Canadian Select.
This sour, heavy crude oil blend is designed to have uniform refining characteristics to compete with internationally marketed heavy oils such as Mexican Mayan or Arabian Dubai Crude. Asphalt was used starting in the s as a hydrophobic matrix aiming to encapsulate radioactive waste such as medium-activity salts mainly soluble sodium nitrate and sodium sulfate produced by the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels or radioactive sludges from sedimentation ponds.
One of the main problems is the swelling of asphalt exposed to radiation and to water. Asphalt swelling is first induced by radiation because of the presence of hydrogen gas bubbles generated by alpha and gamma radiolysis. The high concentration of salt in the pore solution inside the bituminised matrix is then responsible for osmotic effects inside the bituminised matrix.
The water moves in the direction of the concentrated salts, the asphalt acting as a semi-permeable membrane. This also causes the matrix to swell. The swelling pressure due to osmotic effect under constant volume can be as high as bar. If not properly managed, this high pressure can cause fractures in the near field of a disposal gallery of bituminised medium-level waste.
When the bituminised matrix has been altered by swelling, encapsulated radionuclides are easily leached by the contact of ground water and released in the geosphere.
The high ionic strength of the concentrated saline solution also favours the migration of radionuclides in clay host rocks. The presence of chemically reactive nitrate can also affect the redox conditions prevailing in the host rock by establishing oxidizing conditions, preventing the reduction of redox-sensitive radionuclides.
Under their higher valences, radionuclides of elements such as selenium , technetium , uranium , neptunium and plutonium have a higher solubility and are also often present in water as non-retarded anions.
This makes the disposal of medium-level bituminised waste very challenging. Different types of asphalt have been used: blown bitumen partly oxidized with air oxygen at high temperature after distillation, and harder and direct distillation bitumen softer. Blown bitumens like Mexphalte, with a high content of saturated hydrocarbons, are more easily biodegraded by microorganisms than direct distillation bitumen, with a low content of saturated hydrocarbons and a high content of aromatic hydrocarbons.
Concrete encapsulation of radwaste is presently considered a safer alternative by the nuclear industry and the waste management organisations.
Roofing shingles and roll roofing account for most of the remaining asphalt consumption. Other uses include cattle sprays, fence-post treatments, and waterproofing for fabrics. Asphalt is used to make Japan black , a lacquer known especially for its use on iron and steel, and it is also used in paint and marker inks by some exterior paint supply companies to increase the weather resistance and permanence of the paint or ink, and to make the color darker. About 40,, tons were produced in Material with a boiling point greater than around °C is considered asphalt.
Vacuum distillation separates it from the other components in crude oil such as naphtha , gasoline and diesel. The resulting material is typically further treated to extract small but valuable amounts of lubricants and to adjust the properties of the material to suit applications. In a de-asphalting unit , the crude asphalt is treated with either propane or butane in a supercritical phase to extract the lighter molecules, which are then separated.
Further processing is possible by "blowing" the product: namely reacting it with oxygen. This step makes the product harder and more viscous. Asphalt is typically stored and transported at temperatures around °C °F. Sometimes diesel oil or kerosene are mixed in before shipping to retain liquidity; upon delivery, these lighter materials are separated out of the mixture.
This mixture is often called "bitumen feedstock", or BFS. Some dump trucks route the hot engine exhaust through pipes in the dump body to keep the material warm. The backs of tippers carrying asphalt, as well as some handling equipment, are also commonly sprayed with a releasing agent before filling to aid release. Diesel oil is no longer used as a release agent due to environmental concerns. Naturally occurring crude bitumen impregnated in sedimentary rock is the prime feed stock for petroleum production from " oil sands ", currently under development in Alberta, Canada.
Canada has most of the world's supply of natural bitumen, covering , square kilometres  an area larger than England , giving it the second-largest proven oil reserves in the world. The Athabasca oil sands are the largest bitumen deposit in Canada and the only one accessible to surface mining , although recent technological breakthroughs have resulted in deeper deposits becoming producible by in situ methods.
Because of oil price increases after , producing bitumen became highly profitable, but as a result of the decline after it became uneconomic to build new plants again. By , Canadian crude bitumen production averaged about 2. Although uncompetitive economically, asphalt can be made from nonpetroleum-based renewable resources such as sugar, molasses and rice, corn and potato starches. Asphalt can also be made from waste material by fractional distillation of used motor oil , which is sometimes otherwise disposed of by burning or dumping into landfills.
Use of motor oil may cause premature cracking in colder climates, resulting in roads that need to be repaved more frequently. Nonpetroleum-based asphalt binders can be made light-colored.
Lighter-colored roads absorb less heat from solar radiation, reducing their contribution to the urban heat island effect. Selenizza is a naturally occurring solid hydrocarbon bitumen found in native deposits in Selenice , in Albania , the only European asphalt mine still in use.
The bitumen is found in the form of veins, filling cracks in a more or less horizontal direction. Albanian bitumen extraction has a long history and was practiced in an organized way by the Romans. After centuries of silence, the first mentions of Albanian bitumen appeared only in , when the Frenchman Coquand published the first geological description of the deposits of Albanian bitumen. In , the exploitation rights were granted to the Ottoman government and in , they were transferred to the Italian company Simsa.
Since , the mine was exploited by the Albanian government and from to date, the management passed to a French company, which organized the mining process for the manufacture of the natural bitumen on an industrial scale.
Today the mine is predominantly exploited in an open pit quarry but several of the many underground mines deep and extending over several km still remain viable. Selenizza is produced primarily in granular form, after melting the bitumen pieces selected in the mine. Selenizza  is mainly used as an additive in the road construction sector. It is mixed with traditional asphalt to improve both the viscoelastic properties and the resistance to ageing.
It may be blended with the hot asphalt in tanks, but its granular form allows it to be fed in the mixer or in the recycling ring of normal asphalt plants. Other typical applications include the production of mastic asphalts for sidewalks, bridges, car-parks and urban roads as well as drilling fluid additives for the oil and gas industry. Selenizza is available in powder or in granular material of various particle sizes and is packaged in sacks or in thermal fusible polyethylene bags.
A life-cycle assessment study of the natural selenizza compared with petroleum asphalt has shown that the environmental impact of the selenizza is about half the impact of the road asphalt produced in oil refineries in terms of carbon dioxide emission.
Asphalt is a commonly recycled material in the construction industry. The two most common recycled materials that contain asphalt are reclaimed asphalt pavement RAP and reclaimed asphalt shingles RAS. Asphalt naturally becomes stiffer over time due to oxidation, evaporation, exudation, and physical hardening.
For information on the processing and performance of RAP and RAS, see Asphalt Concrete. For information on the different types of RAS and associated health and safety concerns, see Asphalt Shingles.
For information on in-place recycling methods used to restore pavements and roadways, see Road Surface. Although asphalt typically makes up only 4 to 5 percent by weight of the pavement mixture, as the pavement's binder, it is also the most expensive part of the cost of the road-paving material.
During asphalt's early use in modern paving, oil refiners gave it away. However, asphalt is a highly traded commodity today. Its prices increased substantially in the early 21st Century. government report states:. The report indicates that an "average" 1-mile 1. People can be exposed to asphalt in the workplace by breathing in fumes or skin absorption. Asphalt is basically an inert material that must be heated or diluted to a point where it becomes workable for the production of materials for paving, roofing, and other applications.
In , scientists reported that asphalt currently is a significant and largely overlooked source of air pollution in urban areas, especially during hot and sunny periods. An asphalt-like substance found in the Himalayas and known as shilajit is sometimes used as an Ayurveda medicine, but is not in fact a tar, resin or asphalt.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Form of petroleum, primarily used in road construction. For naturally occurring bituminous sands used for petroleum production, see Oil sands. For other uses, see Asphalt disambiguation. See also: Asphaltene. See also: Bitumount and History of the petroleum industry in Canada oil sands and heavy oil.
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Web16/12/ · Xfire video game news covers all the biggest daily gaming headlines WebThe latest Lifestyle | Daily Life news, tips, opinion and advice from The Sydney Morning Herald covering life and relationships, beauty, fashion, health & wellbeing Web26/10/ · Key Findings. California voters have now received their mail ballots, and the November 8 general election has entered its final stage. Amid rising prices and economic uncertainty—as well as deep partisan divisions over social and political issues—Californians are processing a great deal of information to help them choose state constitutional Web21/10/ · A footnote in Microsoft's submission to the UK's Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) has let slip the reason behind Call of Duty's absence from the Xbox Game Pass library: Sony and WebAsphalt, also known as bitumen (UK: / ˈ b ɪ tj ʊ m ɪ n /, US: / b ɪ ˈ tj uː m ə n, b aɪ-/), is a sticky, black, highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of blogger.com may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product, and is classed as a pitch.  Before the 20th century, the term asphaltum was also blogger.com word is derived from the Ancient WebA binary option is a financial exotic option in which the payoff is either some fixed monetary amount or nothing at all. The two main types of binary options are the cash-or-nothing binary option and the asset-or-nothing binary option. The former pays some fixed amount of cash if the option expires in-the-money while the latter pays the value of the underlying ... read more
Which one of the seven state propositions on the November 8 ballot are you most interested in? Let's say you make 1, "trades" and win of them. In The Times of Israel ran several articles on binary options fraud. Note: different sections of Miles' online work were written in different years, as evidenced at the top of each page not including the heading page of each section. Interviews took an average of 19 minutes to complete.The majority of asphalt used commercially is obtained from petroleum. Asphalt plant Asphaltene Bioasphalt Bitumen-based fuel Bituminous rocks Blacktop Cariphalte Duxit Macadam Oil sands Pitch drop experiment Pitch resin Road surface Tar Tarmac Sealcoat Stamped asphalt. Forwards Futures. For information on the processing and performance of RAP and RAS, see Asphalt Concrete. Retrieved on In British Binary options trading nztarmac is used predominantly, which is a generic name, short for tar macadam. Paul Getty Trust, binary options trading nz.