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The drawback is that getting your own, possible very simple, libraries into the search path may require some additional configuration. Another mechanism for specifying the library to import is using a path to it in the file system. This path is considered relative to the directory where current test data file is situated similarly as paths to resource and variable files.

The main benefit of this approach is that there is no need to configure the module search path. If the library is a file, the path to it must contain extension, i.

With absolute paths the trailing slash is optional. Following examples demonstrate these different usages. A limitation of this approach is that libraries implemented as Python classes must be in a module with the same name as the class. The library name is shown in test logs before keyword names, and if multiple keywords have the same name, they must be used so that the keyword name is prefixed with the library name.

The library name is got normally from the module or class name implementing it, but there are some situations where changing it is desirable:. The basic syntax for specifying the new name is having the text AS case-sensitive after the library name and then having the new name after that. The specified name is shown in logs and must be used in the test data when using keywords' full name LibraryName.

Keyword Name. Possible arguments to the library are placed between the original library name and the AS marker. The following example illustrates how the same library can be imported several times with different arguments:. Setting a custom name to a test library works both when importing a library in the Setting section and when using the Import Library keyword. The old syntax continues to work, but it is considered deprecated and will eventually be removed. Some test libraries are distributed with Robot Framework and these libraries are called standard libraries.

The BuiltIn library is special, because it is taken into use automatically and thus its keywords are always available. Other standard libraries need to be imported in the same way as any other libraries, but there is no need to install them.

In addition to the normal standard libraries listed above, there is also Remote library that is totally different than the other standard libraries. It does not have any keywords of its own but it works as a proxy between Robot Framework and actual test library implementations. These libraries can be running on other machines than the core framework and can even be implemented using languages not supported by Robot Framework natively.

See separate Remote library interface section for more information about this concept. Any test library that is not one of the standard libraries is, by definition, an external library. The Robot Framework open source community has implemented several generic libraries, such as SeleniumLibrary and SwingLibrary , which are not packaged with the core framework.

Generic and custom libraries can obviously also be implemented by teams using Robot Framework. See Creating test libraries section for more information about that topic. Different external libraries can have a totally different mechanism for installing them and taking them into use. Sometimes they may also require some other dependencies to be installed separately. All libraries should have clear installation and usage documentation and they should preferably automate the installation process.

Variables are an integral feature of Robot Framework, and they can be used in most places in test data. Most commonly, they are used in arguments for keywords in Test Case and Keyword sections, but also all settings allow variables in their values.

A normal keyword name cannot be specified with a variable, but the BuiltIn keyword Run Keyword can be used to get the same effect. If a non-existent variable is used in the test data, the keyword using it fails. Different ways how to create variables are discussed in the subsequent sections. Robot Framework variables, similarly as keywords, are case-insensitive, and also spaces and underscores are ignored.

Much more importantly, though, case should be used consistently. Unlike in some programming languages where similar variable syntax is used, curly braces are always mandatory. Variable names can basically have any characters between the curly braces. However, using only alphabetic characters from a to z, numbers, underscore and space is recommended, and it is even a requirement for using the extended variable syntax.

When this syntax is used, the variable name is replaced with its value as-is. Most of the time variable values are strings, but variables can contain any object, including numbers, lists, dictionaries, or even custom objects. The example below illustrates the usage of scalar variables. above, its value is first converted into a string and then concatenated with the other data.

The example below demonstrates the difference between having a variable in alone or with other content. Finally, when this test data is executed, different keywords receive the arguments as explained below:.

Converting variables to Unicode obviously fails if the variable cannot be represented as Unicode. A workaround is creating a variable that contains the whole value and using it alone in the cell e. If a variable value is a list or list-like, it is also possible to use it as a list variable like {EXAMPLE}. In this case the list is expanded and individual items are passed in as separate arguments.

This is easiest to explain with an example. Assuming that a variable {USER} has value ['robot', 'secret'] , the following two test cases are equivalent:. Robot Framework stores its own variables in one internal storage and allows using them as scalars, lists or dictionaries.

Using a variable as a list requires its value to be a Python list or list-like object. Robot Framework does not allow strings to be used as lists, but other iterable objects such as tuples or dictionaries are accepted. Starting from Robot Framework 4. List variables can be used only with some of the settings. They can be used in arguments to imported libraries and variable files, but library and variable file names themselves cannot be list variables.

Also with setups and teardowns list variable can not be used as the name of the keyword, but can be used in arguments. With tag related settings they can be used freely. Using scalar variables is possible in those places where list variables are not supported. As discussed above, a variable containing a list can be used as a list variable to pass list items to a keyword as individual arguments.

In practice this means that the dictionary is expanded and individual items are passed as named arguments to the keyword. It is possible to use dictionary variables with other arguments, including other dictionary variables. Because named argument syntax requires positional arguments to be before named argument, dictionaries can only be followed by named arguments or other dictionaries.

Dictionary variables cannot generally be used with settings. The only exception are imports, setups and teardowns where dictionaries can be used as arguments. It is possible to access items of subscriptable variables, e. Robot Framework 3. It is possible to access a certain item of a variable containing a sequence e.

Indices start from zero, negative indices can be used to access items from the end, and trying to access an item with too large an index causes an error. Indices are automatically converted to integers, and it is also possible to use variables as indices. With this syntax you do not get a single item but a slice of the original sequence. Same way as with Python you can specify the start index, the end index, and the step:.

The slice syntax is new in Robot Framework 3. It was extended to work with list expansion like {var}[1:] in Robot Framework 4. Nowadays all sequences, including strings and bytes, are supported. Keys are considered to be strings, but non-strings keys can be used as variables.

Dictionary values accessed in this manner can be used similarly as scalar variables. See Creating dictionary variables for more details about this syntax. This is especially useful when working with JSON data often returned by REST services. X'}] , this tests would pass:. They are limited to string values.

Environment variables set in the operating system before the test execution are available during it, and it is possible to create new ones with the keyword Set Environment Variable or delete existing ones with the keyword Delete Environment Variable , both available in the OperatingSystem library.

Because environment variables are global, environment variables set in one test case can be used in other test cases executed after it. However, changes to environment variables are not effective after the test execution.

The most common source for variables are Variable sections in test case files and resource files. Variable sections are convenient, because they allow creating variables in the same place as the rest of the test data, and the needed syntax is very simple. Their main disadvantages are that values are always strings and they cannot be created dynamically.

If either of these is a problem, variable files can be used instead. The simplest possible variable assignment is setting a string into a scalar variable. If the second column is empty, an empty string is set as a value.

Also an already defined variable can be used in the value. If a scalar variable has a long value, it can be split into multiple rows by using the Creating list variables is as easy as creating scalar variables. Again, the variable name is in the first column of the Variable section and values in the subsequent columns. A list variable can have any number of values, starting from zero, and if many values are needed, they can be split into several rows.

Dictionary variables can be created in the Variable section similarly as list variables. If there are multiple items with same name, the last value has precedence.

Dictionary variables have two extra properties compared to normal Python dictionaries. This only works if the key is a valid attribute name and does not match any normal attribute Python dictionaries have. This eases working with nested data structures. Another special property of dictionary variables is that they are ordered. This means that if these dictionaries are iterated, their items always come in the order they are defined. This can be useful if dictionaries are used as list variables with FOR loops or otherwise.

When a dictionary is used as a list variable, the actual value contains dictionary keys. For example, {MANY} variable would have value ['first', 'second', 3].

Variable files are the most powerful mechanism for creating different kind of variables. It is possible to assign variables to any object using them, and they also enable creating variables dynamically.

The variable file syntax and taking variable files into use is explained in section Resource and variable files. Variables can be set from the command line either individually with the --variable -v option or using a variable file with the --variablefile -V option.

Variables set from the command line are globally available for all executed test data files, and they also override possible variables with the same names in the Variable section and in variable files imported in the test data. Several variables can be set by using this option several times. Only scalar variables can be set using this syntax and they can only get string values.

py , and Taking variable files into use section has more details. What variables actually are created depends on what variables there are in the referenced variable file. If both variable files and individual variables are given from the command line, the latter have higher priority. Return values from keywords can also be set into variables. This allows communication between different keywords even in different test libraries.

Variables set in this manner are otherwise similar to any other variables, but they are available only in the local scope where they are created. Thus it is not possible, for example, to set a variable like this in one test case and use it in another.

This is because, in general, automated test cases should not depend on each other, and accidentally setting a variable that is used elsewhere could cause hard-to-debug errors. If there is a genuine need for setting a variable in one test case and using it in another, it is possible to use BuiltIn keywords as explained in the next section. Any value returned by a keyword can be assigned to a scalar variable. As illustrated by the example below, the required syntax is very simple:.

Creating local variables like this works both in test case and user keyword level. Notice that although a value is assigned to a scalar variable, it can be used as a list variable if it has a list-like value and as a dictionary variable if it has a dictionary-like value. If a keyword returns a list or any list-like object, it is possible to assign it to a list variable :.

Because all Robot Framework variables are stored in the same namespace, there is not much difference between assigning a value to a scalar variable or a list variable. This can be seen by comparing the last two examples above. The main differences are that when creating a list variable, Robot Framework automatically verifies that the value is a list or list-like, and the stored variable value will be a new list created from the return value. When assigning to a scalar variable, the return value is not verified and the stored value will be the exact same object that was returned.

If a keyword returns a dictionary or any dictionary-like object, it is possible to assign it to a dictionary variable :. Because all Robot Framework variables are stored in the same namespace, it would also be possible to assign a dictionary into a scalar variable and use it later as a dictionary when needed.

There are, however, some actual benefits in creating a dictionary variable explicitly. First of all, Robot Framework verifies that the returned value is a dictionary or dictionary-like similarly as it verifies that list variables can only get a list-like value. A bigger benefit is that the value is converted into a special dictionary that it uses also when creating dictionary variables in the Variable section.

first} in the above example. These dictionaries are also ordered, but if the original dictionary was not ordered, the resulting order is arbitrary. If a keyword returns a list or a list-like object, it is possible to assign individual values into multiple scalar variables or into scalar variables and a list variable.

Assuming that the keyword Get Three returns a list [1, 2, 3] , the following variables are created:. It is an error if the returned list has more or less values than there are scalar variables to assign. Additionally, only one list variable is allowed and dictionary variables can only be assigned alone. To make it easier to understand what happens during execution, the beginning of value that is assigned is automatically logged.

The default is to show first characters, but this can be changed by using the --maxassignlength command line option when running tests. If the value is zero or negative, the whole assigned value is hidden. The reason the value is not logged fully is that it could be really big. If you always want to see a certain value fully, it is possible to use the BuiltIn Log keyword to log it after the assignment.

The --maxassignlength option is new in Robot Framework 5. The BuiltIn library has keywords Set Test Variable , Set Suite Variable and Set Global Variable which can be used for setting variables dynamically during the test execution. If a variable already exists within the new scope, its value will be overwritten, and otherwise a new variable is created.

Variables set with Set Test Variable keyword are available everywhere within the scope of the currently executed test case. For example, if you set a variable in a user keyword, it is available both in the test case level and also in all other user keywords used in the current test. Other test cases will not see variables set with this keyword.

It is an error to call Set Test Variable outside the scope of a test e. in a Suite Setup or Teardown. Variables set with Set Suite Variable keyword are available everywhere within the scope of the currently executed test suite. Setting variables with this keyword thus has the same effect as creating them using the Variable section in the test data file or importing them from variable files.

Other test suites, including possible child test suites, will not see variables set with this keyword. Variables set with Set Global Variable keyword are globally available in all test cases and suites executed after setting them. Setting variables with this keyword thus has the same effect as creating from the command line using the options --variable or --variablefile.

Because this keyword can change variables everywhere, it should be used with care. On the other hand, another BuiltIn keyword Set Variable sets local variables using return values. Built-in variables related to the operating system ease making the test data operating-system-agnostic. The variable syntax can be used for creating both integers and floating point numbers, as illustrated in the example below. This is useful when a keyword expects to get an actual number, and not a string that just looks like a number, as an argument.

It is possible to create integers also from binary, octal, and hexadecimal values using 0b , 0o and 0x prefixes, respectively. The syntax is case insensitive. Also Boolean values and Python None can be created using the variable syntax similarly as numbers. These variables are useful, for example, when there would otherwise be a need to escape spaces or empty cells with a backslash. In the following example, Should Be Equal keyword gets identical arguments but those using variables are easier to understand than those using backslashes.

Because they have no content, they basically vanish when used somewhere in the test data. They are useful, for example, with test templates when the template keyword is used without arguments or when overriding list or dictionary variables in different scopes. Some automatic variables can also be used in the test data.

These variables can have different values during the test execution and some of them are not even available all the time. Altering the value of these variables does not affect the original values, but some values can be changed dynamically using keywords from the BuiltIn library. A dictionary exposing command line options.

Available options:. Possible variables in these automatic variables are not yet resolved at the import time, though. Variables coming from different sources have different priorities and are available in different scopes. Variables set in the command line have the highest priority of all variables that can be set before the actual test execution starts.

They override possible variables created in Variable sections in test case files, as well as in resource and variable files imported in the test data. Individually set variables --variable option override the variables set using variable files --variablefile option. If you specify same individual variable multiple times, the one specified last will override earlier ones.

This allows setting default values for variables in a start-up script and overriding them from the command line. Notice, though, that if multiple variable files have same variables, the ones in the file specified first have the highest priority.

Variables created using the Variable section in a test case file are available for all the test cases in that file. These variables override possible variables with same names in imported resource and variable files.

Variables created in the Variable sections are available in all other sections in the file where they are created. This means that they can be used also in the Setting section, for example, for importing more variables from resource and variable files. Variables imported from the resource and variable files have the lowest priority of all variables created in the test data.

Variables from resource files and variable files have the same priority. If a resource file imports resource files or variable files, variables in its own Variable section have a higher priority than variables it imports.

All these variables are available for files that import this resource file. Note that variables imported from resource and variable files are not available in the Variable section of the file that imports them. This is due to the Variable section being processed before the Setting section where the resource files and variable files are imported.

Depending on where and how they are created, variables can have a global, test suite, test case or local scope. Global variables are available everywhere in the test data. These variables are normally set from the command line with the --variable and --variablefile options, but it is also possible to create new global variables or change the existing ones with the BuiltIn keyword Set Global Variable anywhere in the test data.

Additionally also built-in variables are global. Variables with the test suite scope are available anywhere in the test suite where they are defined or imported.

They can be created in Variable sections, imported from resource and variable files , or set during the test execution using the BuiltIn keyword Set Suite Variable. The test suite scope is not recursive , which means that variables available in a higher-level test suite are not available in lower-level suites.

If necessary, resource and variable files can be used for sharing variables. Since these variables can be considered global in the test suite where they are used, it is recommended to use capital letters also with them. Variables with the test case scope are visible in a test case and in all user keywords the test uses.

Initially there are no variables in this scope, but it is possible to create them by using the BuiltIn keyword Set Test Variable anywhere in a test case. Also variables in the test case scope are to some extend global. It is thus generally recommended to use capital letters with them too. Test cases and user keywords have a local variable scope that is not seen by other tests or keywords. Local variables can be created using return values from executed keywords and user keywords also get them as arguments.

getName }. It works both with scalar and list variables, but is mainly useful with the former. Extended variable syntax is a powerful feature, but it should be used with care. Accessing attributes is normally not a problem, on the contrary, because one variable containing an object with several attributes is often better than having several variables. On the other hand, calling methods, especially when they are used with arguments, can make the test data pretty complicated to understand.

If that happens, it is recommended to move the code into a test library. The most common usages of extended variable syntax are illustrated in the example below. First assume that we have the following variable file and test case:. Many standard Python objects, including strings and numbers, have methods that can be used with the extended variable syntax either explicitly or implicitly. Sometimes this can be really useful and reduce the need for setting temporary variables, but it is also easy to overuse it and create really cryptic test data.

Following examples show few pretty good usages. Note that even though abs number is recommended over number. This is because the variable name must be in the beginning of the extended syntax. Extended variable syntax works also in list variable context. It is possible to set attributes of objects stored to scalar variables using keyword return values and a variation of the extended variable syntax.

Unlike when assigning variables normally using return values from keywords , changes to variables done using the extended assign syntax are not limited to the current scope. Because no new variable is created but instead the state of an existing variable is changed, all tests and keywords that see that variable will also see the changes. Variables are allowed also inside variables, and when this syntax is used, variables are resolved from the inside out.

There can be several nested variables, but resolving the outermost fails, if any of them does not exist. Variable syntax can also be used for evaluating Python expressions. there are double curly braces around the expression. This is somewhat similar functionality than the extended variable syntax discussed earlier.

As the examples above illustrate, this syntax is even more powerful as it provides access to Python built-ins like len and modules like math. The whole expression syntax is explained in the Evaluating expressions appendix.

Instead of creating complicated expressions, it is often better to move the logic into a custom library. That eases maintenance, makes test data easier to understand and can also enhance execution speed. Keyword sections are used to create new higher-level keywords by combining existing keywords together.

These keywords are called user keywords to differentiate them from lowest level library keywords that are implemented in test libraries. The syntax for creating user keywords is very close to the syntax for creating test cases, which makes it easy to learn.

In many ways, the overall user keyword syntax is identical to the test case syntax. User keywords are created in Keyword sections which differ from Test Case sections only by the name that is used to identify them. User keyword names are in the first column similarly as test cases names. Also user keywords are created from keywords, either from keywords in test libraries or other user keywords. Keyword names are normally in the second column, but when setting variables from keyword return values, they are in the subsequent columns.

Most user keywords take some arguments. This important feature is used already in the second example above, and it is explained in detail later in this section , similarly as user keyword return values.

User keywords can be created in test case files , resource files , and suite initialization files. Keywords created in resource files are available for files using them, whereas other keywords are only available in the files where they are created. User keywords can have similar settings as test cases , and they have the same square bracket syntax separating them from keyword names. All available settings are listed below and explained later in this section. The format used above is recommended, but setting names are case-insensitive and spaces are allowed between brackets and the name.

For example, [ TAGS ] :setting is valid. The user keyword name is defined in the first column of the Keyword section. Of course, the name should be descriptive, and it is acceptable to have quite long keyword names.

Actually, when creating use-case-like test cases, the highest-level keywords are often formulated as sentences or even paragraphs. User keywords can have a documentation that is set with the [Documentation] setting. It supports same formatting, splitting to multiple lines, and other features as test case documentation. This setting documents the user keyword in the test data.

It is also shown in a more formal keyword documentation, which the Libdoc tool can create from resource files. Finally, the first logical row of the documentation, until the first empty row, is shown as a keyword documentation in test logs. Sometimes keywords need to be removed, replaced with new ones, or deprecated for other reasons. For more information, see the Deprecating keywords section. Both user keywords and library keywords can have tags.

Similarly as when tagging test cases , there are two settings affecting user keyword tags:. Additionally, keyword tags can be specified on the last line of the documentation with Tags: prefix so that tags are separated with a comma. For example, following two keywords get same three tags:. Keyword tags are shown in logs and in documentation generated by Libdoc , where the keywords can also be searched based on tags. The --removekeywords and --flattenkeywords commandline options also support selecting keywords by tag, and new usages for keywords tags are possibly added in later releases.

Similarly as with test case tags , user keyword tags with the robot: prefix are reserved for special features by Robot Framework itself. Users should thus not use any tag with these prefixes unless actually activating the special functionality. Keyword Tags is new in Robot Framework 6. With earlier versions all keyword tags need to be specified using the [Tags] setting. Creating tags with literal value like -tag is deprecated in Robot Framework 6.

Most user keywords need to take some arguments. The syntax for specifying them is probably the most complicated feature normally needed with Robot Framework, but even that is relatively easy, particularly in most common cases.

The simplest way to specify arguments apart from not having them at all is using only positional arguments. In most cases, this is all that is needed. The syntax is such that first the [Arguments] setting is given and then argument names are defined in the subsequent cells. Each argument is in its own cell, using the same syntax as with variables. The keyword must be used with as many arguments as there are argument names in its signature.

The actual argument names do not matter to the framework, but from users' perspective they should be as descriptive as possible. When creating user keywords, positional arguments are sufficient in most situations. It is, however, sometimes useful that keywords have default values for some or all of their arguments. Also user keywords support default values, and the needed new syntax does not add very much to the already discussed basic syntax.

There can be many arguments with defaults, but they all must be given after the normal positional arguments. The default value can contain a variable created on test, suite or global scope , but local variables of the keyword executor cannot be used.

Default value can also be defined based on earlier arguments accepted by the keyword. The syntax for default values is space sensitive. When a keyword accepts several arguments with default values and only some of them needs to be overridden, it is often handy to use the named arguments syntax.

As all Pythonistas must have already noticed, the syntax for specifying default arguments is heavily inspired by Python syntax for function default values. Sometimes even default values are not enough and there is a need for a keyword accepting variable number of arguments. User keywords support also this feature. All that is needed is having list variable such as {varargs} after possible positional arguments in the keyword signature.

This syntax can be combined with the previously described default values, and at the end the list variable gets all the leftover arguments that do not match other arguments. The list variable can thus have any number of items, even zero. This happens even if the given value is empty. The last example also illustrates how a variable number of arguments accepted by a user keyword can be used in a for loop.

This combination of two rather advanced functions can sometimes be very useful. Again, Pythonistas probably notice that the variable number of arguments syntax is very close to the one in Python. When the keyword is called, this variable will get all named arguments that do not match any positional argument or named-only argument in the keyword signature. The last example above shows how to create a wrapper keyword that accepts any positional or named argument and passes them forward.

See free named argument examples for a full example with same keyword. Free named arguments support with user keywords works similarly as kwargs work in Python. This syntax is typically used by having normal arguments after variable number of arguments {varargs}. If the keywords does not use varargs, it is possible to use just {} to denote that the subsequent arguments are named-only:.

Named-only arguments can be used together with positional arguments as well as with free named arguments. When using free named arguments, they must be last:. When passing named-only arguments to keywords, their order does not matter other than they must follow possible positional arguments. The keywords above could be used, for example, like this:.

Named-only arguments can have default values similarly as normal user keyword arguments. A minor difference is that the order of arguments with and without default values is not important. The previous section explained how to pass arguments to keywords so that they are listed separately after the keyword name. Robot Framework has also another approach to pass arguments, embedding them directly to the keyword name, used by the second test below:.

As the example illustrates, embedding arguments to keyword names can make the data easier to read and understand even for people without any Robot Framework experience. The previous example showed how using a keyword Select cat from list is more fluent than using Select from list so that cat is passed to it as an argument. We also show where to get a robot demo account to trial the service, and teach you to use auto trading software and tools.

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Robot Framework is a Python-based, extensible keyword-driven automation framework for acceptance testing, acceptance test driven development ATDD , behavior driven development BDD and robotic process automation RPA. It can be used in distributed, heterogeneous environments, where automation requires using different technologies and interfaces. The framework has a rich ecosystem around it consisting of various generic libraries and tools that are developed as separate projects.

Robot Framework is open source software released under the Apache License 2. Its development is sponsored by the Robot Framework Foundation. The official RPA support was added in Robot Framework 3. This User Guide still talks mainly about creating tests, test data, and test libraries, but same concepts apply also when creating tasks.

Robot Framework is a generic, application and technology independent framework. It has a highly modular architecture illustrated in the diagram below. The test data is in simple, easy-to-edit tabular format. When Robot Framework is started, it processes the data, executes test cases and generates logs and reports.

The core framework does not know anything about the target under test, and the interaction with it is handled by libraries. Libraries can either use application interfaces directly or use lower level test tools as drivers. Following screenshots show examples of the test data and created reports and logs. Robot Framework itself is hosted on GitHub. There are several Robot Framework mailing lists where to ask and search for more information. The mailing list archives are open for everyone including the search engines and everyone can also join these lists freely.

Only list members can send mails, though, and to prevent spam new users are moderated which means that it might take a little time before your first message goes through. Do not be afraid to send question to mailing lists but remember How To Ask Questions The Smart Way.

Robot Framework is open source software provided under the Apache License 2. Robot Framework documentation such as this User Guide use the Creative Commons Attribution 3. Most libraries and tools in the larger ecosystem around the framework are also open source, but they may use different licenses. These instructions cover installing Robot Framework and its preconditions on different operating systems. If you already have Python installed, you can install Robot Framework using the standard package manager pip :.

Robot Framework is implemented using Python , and a precondition to install it is having Python or its alternative implementation PyPy installed. Another recommended precondition is having the pip package manager available. Robot Framework requires Python 3.

If you need to use Python 2, Jython or IronPython , you can use Robot Framework 4. On Linux you should have suitable Python installation with pip available by default. If not, you need to consult your distributions documentation to learn how to install them. This is also true if you want to use some other Python version than the one provided by your distribution by default.

To check what Python version you have installed, you can run python --version command in a terminal:. Notice that if your distribution provides also older Python 2, running python may use that.

To use Python 3, you can use python3 command or even more version specific command like python3. You need to use these version specific variants also if you have multiple Python 3 versions installed and need to pinpoint which one to use:. Installing Robot Framework directly under the system provided Python has a risk that possible problems can affect the whole Python installation used also by the operating system itself.

Nowadays Linux distributions typically use user installs by default to avoid such problems, but users can also themselves decide to use virtual environments. On Windows Python is not available by default, but it is easy to install. For other alternatives, such as installing from the Microsoft Store, see the official Python documentation.

When installing Python on Windows, it is recommended to add Python to PATH to make it and tools like pip and Robot Framework easier to execute from the command line.

When using the official installer , you just need to select the Add Python 3. x to PATH checkbox on the first dialog. To make sure Python installation has been successful and Python has been added to PATH , you can open the command prompt and execute python --version :.

If you install multiple Python versions on Windows, the Python that is used when you execute python is the one first in PATH. If you need to use others, the easiest way is using the py launcher :. MacOS does not provide Python 3 compatible Python version by default, so it needs to be installed separately.

If you are using a package manager like Homebrew , installing Python via it is possible as well. You can validate Python installation on macOS using python --version like on other operating systems.

PyPy is an alternative Python implementation. Its main advantage over the standard Python implementation is that it can be faster and use less memory, but this depends on the context where and how it is used. If execution speed is important, at least testing PyPy is probably a good idea. To validate that PyPy installation was successful, run pypy --version or pypy3 --version. The PATH environment variable lists directories where commands executed in a system are searched from.

To make using Python, pip and Robot Framework easier from the command line, it is recommended to add the Python installation directory as well as the directory where commands like pip and robot are installed into PATH. When using Python on Linux or macOS, Python and tools installed with it should be automatically in PATH.

If you nevertheless need to update PATH , you typically need to edit some system wide or user specific configuration file. Which file to edit and how depends on the operating system and you need to consult its documentation for more details. On Windows the easiest way to make sure PATH is configured correctly is setting the Add Python 3. x to PATH checkbox when running the installer. To manually modify PATH on Windows, follow these steps:. These instructions cover installing Robot Framework using pip , the standard Python package manager.

If you are using some other package manager like Conda , you can use it instead but need to study its documentation for instructions. When installing Python, you typically get pip installed automatically. If that is not the case, you need to check the documentation of that Python installation for instructions how to install it separately.

Typically you use pip by running the pip command, but on Linux you may need to use pip3 or even more Python version specific variant like pip3. When running pip or any of its variants, the pip version that is found first in PATH will be used. If you have multiple Python versions installed, you may need to pinpoint which exact version you want to use. This is typically easiest done by running python -m pip and substituting python with the Python version you want to use.

In the subsequent sections pip is always run using the pip command. You may need to use some of the other approaches explained above in your environment. The easiest way to use pip is by letting it find and download packages it installs from the Python Package Index PyPI , but it can also install packages downloaded from the PyPI separately.

The most common usages are shown below and pip documentation has more information and examples. Another installation alternative is getting Robot Framework source code and installing it using the provided setup.

py script. This approach is recommended only if you do not have pip available for some reason. You can get the source code by downloading a source distribution as a zip package from PyPI and extracting it. An alternative is cloning the GitHub repository and checking out the needed release tag. The setup. py script accepts several arguments allowing, for example, installation into a non-default location that does not require administrative rights.

It is also used for creating different distribution packages. Run python setup. py --help for more details. To make sure that the correct Robot Framework version has been installed, run the following command:. If running these commands fails with a message saying that the command is not found or recognized, a good first step is double-checking the PATH configuration.

If you have installed Robot Framework under multiple Python versions, running robot will execute the one first in PATH. To select explicitly, you can run python -m robot and substitute python with the right Python version.

Python virtual environments allow Python packages to be installed in an isolated location for a particular system or application, rather than installing all packages into the same global location. They have two main use cases:. This section covers Robot Framework's overall test data syntax. The following sections will explain how to actually create test cases, test suites and so on. Although this section mostly uses term test , the same rules apply also when creating tasks.

Test case files, test suite initialization files and resource files are all created using Robot Framework test data syntax. Test libraries and variable files are created using "real" programming languages, most often Python.

Different sections are recognized by their header row. There are no visible deprecation warnings yet, but warnings will emitted in the future and singular headers will eventually not be supported at all.

The header row can contain also other data than the actual section header. The extra data must be separated from the section header using the data format dependent separator, typically two or more spaces. These extra headers are ignored at parsing time, but they can be used for documenting purposes. This is especially useful when creating test cases using the data-driven style.

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Same concepts apply also when creating tasks , but the terminology differs. Naming columns like in the example above makes tests easier to understand. There is no need to align the pipes, but that often makes the data easier to read. Variables set with Set Test Variable keyword are available everywhere within the scope of the currently executed test case. Med MitID Erhverv får virksomheder og foreninger samtidig en nemmere digital hverdag. See free named argument examples for a full example with same keyword.

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